Abdelaziz Bouteflika ruled Algeria for 20 years before his resignation in April 2019.
He was born on March 2, 1937 to an Algerian father and mother, in the Moroccan city of Oujda, where he lived and grew up until he completed his secondary education.
In 1956, he abandoned his studies to join the National Liberation Army at the age of 19, where he engaged in fighting on many burning fronts, and soon assumed high positions in the leadership of the Algerian liberation revolution.
During the years 1957 and 1958, he served in the historic fifth state (the Oran region), where he was appointed as a general observer, and an officer in the fourth and seventh regions.
Bouteflika joined the Military Operations Command and Staff Command in the west of the country, then to the General Staff, and was assigned the tasks of some of them on the Algerian border with Mali.
With the beginning of Chadli Bendjedid's assumption of power in Algeria, the troubles of Bouteflika began, who was withdrawn from the foreign portfolio in 1979, and he was appointed Minister of State without a portfolio.
Bouteflika was surprised by his expulsion from the Central Committee of the National Liberation Front Party in 1981, and the state also demanded that he and his family evict the villa in which he lived in the highlands of the Algerian capital, after he was accused of financial corruption and prosecuted.
Thus, Bouteflika had no choice but to leave Algeria, where he spent his self-imposed exile between Europe and the Gulf, until he returned in 1987 with guarantees from President Bendjedid that he would not be pursued.
In 1989 he participated in the Sixth Congress of the National Liberation Front, and was re-elected to its Central Committee.
After nearly a decade of violence and civil war, referred to in Algeria as the "black decade", Bouteflika ran independently in the presidential elections after President Liamine Zeroual resigned in 1999.
Bouteflika promised to end the violence that killed nearly 150,000 people, and left losses of more than 30 billion dollars, and escalated after the cancellation of the results of the 1991 parliamentary elections, which the Islamic Salvation Front won by a majority.
Stemming from this promise, Bouteflika ran in the elections alone, after his six rivals withdrew due to fraud charges.
Bouteflika has relied on his huge popularity with many Algerians who credit him with ending the country's longest civil war by offering amnesty to former Islamist fighters.
With the support of the army and the National Liberation Front, Bouteflika won the presidency with 79 percent of the vote.
As for the second term, Bouteflika also won in 2004, but he was not the only candidate, but rather faced the fierce competitor, former Prime Minister Ali Benflis.
At that time, Bouteflika received 84.99 percent of the vote, while Benflis received 6.42 percent.
In 2008, a constitutional amendment was approved that abolished the limitation of the presidency to two states, and was widely criticized.
Bouteflika ran for a fifth term, amid great controversy in the Algerian street, where the people met his candidacy with rejection due to his health after they went out in the February 22, 2019 demonstrations, to announce his resignation on April 2, 2019.